Aleman, A., & van’t Wout, M. (2004). Subvocalization in auditory–verbal imagery: Just a form of motor imagery? Cognitive Processing, 5, 228–231.

Alm, P. A. (2004). Stuttering and the basal ganglia circuits: a critical review of possible relations. Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 325–369.

Alm, P. A. (2014). Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: Review and analysis with focus on causality. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 40, 5–21.

Anderson, J. D., Wagovich, S. A., & Hall, N. E. (2006). Nonword repetition skills in young children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 177–199.

Anderson, J. D. & Wagovich, S. A. (2010). Relationships among linguistic processing speed, phonological working memory, and attention in children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, 216–234.

Andrade, A. N. de, Gil, D., Schiefer, A. M., & Pereira, L. D.(2008). Behavioral auditory processing evaluation in individuals with stuttering. Pró-Fono Revista de Atualização Científica, 20, 43–49.

Arcuri, C. F., Schiefer, A. M., & Azevedo, M. F. (2017). Research about suppression effect and auditory processing in individuals who stutter. Codas, 29, e20160230.

Arenas, R. M., Zebrowski, P. M., & Moon, J. B. (2012). Phonetically governed voicing onset and offset in preschool children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 179–187.

Astheimer, L. B. & Sanders, L. C. (2012). Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 120–128.

Astheimer, L. B. & Sanders, L. C. (2009). Listeners modulate temporally selective attention during natural speech processing. Biological Psychology, 80, 23–34.

Baars, J. B., Motley, M. T, & MacKay, D. J. (1975). Output editing for lexical status in artificially elicited slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 382–391.

Beal, D. S., Gracco, V. L., Lafaille, S.J., & De Nil, L.F.. (2007). Voxel-based morphometry of auditory and speech-related cortex in stutterers. NeuroReport, 18, 1257–1260.

Beal, D. S., Cheyne, D. O., Gracco, V. L., Quraan, M. A., Taylor, M. J., & De Nil, L. F. (2010). Auditory evoked fields to vocalization during passive listening and active generation in adults who stutter. NeuroImage, 52, 1645–1653.

Beal, D. S., Quraan, M. A., Cheyne, D. O., Taylor, M. J., Gracco, V. L., & De Nil, L. F. (2011). Speech-induced suppression of evoked auditory fields in children who stutter. NeuroImage, 54, 2994–3003.

Beal, D. S., Gracco, V. L., Brettschneider, J., Kroll, R. M., & De Nil, L. F. (2013). A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional gray and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter. Cortex, 49, 2151–2161.

Behroozmand, R. & Larson, C. R. (2011) Error-dependent modulation of speech-induced auditory suppression for pitch-shifted voice feedback. BMC neuroscience, 12: 54. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-54

Bengtsson, S.L., Nagy, Z., Skare. S. Forsman, L., Forssberg, H., Ullén, F. (2005). Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neuroscience, 8,1148–1150.

Ben Shalom, D. & Poeppel, D. (2008). Functional anatomic models of language: Assembling the pieces. The Neuroscientist, 14, 119–127.

Bernal, B. & Adrila, A. (2009): The role of the arcuate fasciculus in conduction aphasia. Brain, 132, 2309–2316.

Bernstein Ratner, N. & Wijnen, F. (2006). The vicious cycle: linguistic encoding, self-monitoring and stuttering. In Research, treatment, and self-help in fluency disorders. Preceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Fluency Disorders (pp. 84–90). Dublin: ifa.

Bernstein Ratner, N., &: Sih, C. C. (1987). Effects of gradual increases in sentence length and complexity on children's dysfluency. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 278–287.

Blakemore S. J., Frith C. D., & Wolpert D. M. (2001). The cerebellum is involved in predicting the sensory consequences of action. Neuroreport 12, 1879–1884.

Blood, G. W. & Blood, I. M. (1984a). Central auditory function in young stutterers. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 59, 699–705.

Blood, I. M. & Blood, G. W. (1984b). Relationship between stuttering severity and brainstem-evoked response testing. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 59, 935–938.

Blood, I. M. (1996). Disruptions in auditory and temporal processing in adults who stutter. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 272–274.

Bloodstein, O. (1958). Stuttering as an anticipatory struggle reaction. In J. Eisenson (Ed.) Stuttering. A symposium (pp. 3–69). New York: Harper & Row.

Bloodstein, O. (1975). Stuttering as tension and fragmentation. In Eisenson (Ed.). Stuttering: A second symposium (pp. 1–95). New York: Harper & Row.

Bloodstein, O. (1995). A Handbook on Stuttering. (5th ed.). London: Chapman & Hall.

Bloodstein, O. & Bernstein Ratner, N. (2008). A Handbook on Stuttering. (6th ed.). New York: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Bosshardt, H. G. (1993). Differences between stutterers' and nonstutterers' short-term recall and recognition performance. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 36, 286–293.

Brauer, J. (2009). Functional development and structural maturation in the brain's neural network underlying language comprehension (Dissertation), Leipzig: Max-Planck-Institut für Kognition und Neurowissenschaften.

Braun, A. R., Varga, M., Stager, S., Schulz, G., Selbie, S., Maisog, J. M., Carson, R. F., & Ludlow, C. L. (1997). Altered patterns of cerebral activity during speech and language production in developmental stuttering. Brain, 120, 761–784.

Brocklehurst, P. H., & Corley, M. (2011). Investigating the inner speech of people who stutter: Evidence for (and against) the Covert Repair Hypothesis. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 246–260.

Brocklehurst, P. H., Lickley, R. J., & Corley, M. (2013). Revisiting Bloodstein's Anticipatory Struggle Hypothesis from a psycholinguistic perspective. A variable release threshold hypothesis of stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46, 217–237.

Brown, S. E. (1938). Stuttering with relation to word accent and word position. Journal of abnormal and Social Psychology, 33, 112–120.

Brown, S. F. (1945). The loci of stuttering in the speech sequence. Journal of Speech Disorders, 10, 181–192.

Brown, S., Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Laird, A. R., & Fox, P. T. (2005). Stuttered and fluent speech production: An ALE Meta-Analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 105–117.

Brown, T., Sambrooks, J. F., & MacCulloch, M. J. (1975). Auditory thresholds and the effect of reduced auditory feedback of stuttering. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 51, 297–311.

Budde, K. S., Barron, D. S., & Fox, P. T. (2014). Stuttering, induced fluency, and natural fluency: A hierarchical series of activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses. Brain & Language, 139, 99–107.

Buhr, A. P. & Zebrowski, P. M. (2009). Sentence position and syntactic complexity of stuttering in early childhood: A longitudinal study. Jounal of Fluency Disorders, 34, 155–172.

Byrd, C. T., Conture, E. G., & Ohde, R. N. (2007). Phonological priming in young children who stutter. Holistic versus incremental processing. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 43–53.

Byrd, C. T., Vallely, M., Anderson, J. D., & Sussman, H. (2012). Nonword repetition and phoneme elision in adults who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 188–201.

Cai, S., Beal, D. S., Ghosh, S.S., Tiede, M. K., Guenther, F. H., et al. (2012) Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: Evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation. PLoS ONE, 7, e41830. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041830

Cai, S., Beal, D. S., Ghosh, S. S., Guenther, F. H., & Perkell, J. S. (2014a). Impaired timing adjustments in response to time-varying auditory perturbation during connected speech production in persons who stutter. Brain & Language, doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2014.01.002

Cai, S., Tourville, J. A., Beal, D. S., Perkell, J. S., Guenther, F. H., & Ghosh, S. S. (2014b). Diffusion imaging of cerebral white matter in persons who stutter: evidence for network-level anomalies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, article 54. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00054

Carruthers, P. & Bouchet, J. (1998). Language and thought. Interdisciplinary themes (pp. 1–18). Cambridge: University press.

Catani, M., Jones, D. K., & ffytche, D. H. (2005). Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Annals of Neurology, 57, 8–16.

Chang, S.-E., Erickson, K. I., Ambrose, N. G., Hasegawa-Johnson, M. A., & Ludlow, C. (2008). Brain anatomy differences in childhood stuttering. NeuroImage, 39, 1333–1344.

Chang, S.-E., Horwitz, B., Ostuni, J., Reynolds, R., & Ludlow, C. L. (2011). Evidence of left inferior frontal-premotor structural and functional connectivity deficits in adults who stutter. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 2507–2518.

Chang, S.-E. & Zhu, D. C. (2013). Neural network connectivity differences in children who stutter. Brain, 136, 3709–3726.

Chang, S.-E. (2014). Research updates in neuroimaging studies of children who stutter. Seminars in Speech and Language, 35, 67–79.

Chang, S. E., Zhu, D.C., Choo, A. L., & Angstadt, M. (2015). White matter neuroanatomical differences in young children who stutter. Brain, 138, 694–711.

Chang, S.-F., Angstadt M., Chow H. M., Etchell, A. C., Garnett, E. O., Choo, A. L., Kessler, D., Welsh, R. C., & Sripada, C. (2017). Anomalous network architecture of the resting brain in children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, pii: S0094-730X(16)30075-4

Cherry, E. C., (1953). Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 15, 975–979.

Cherry, E. C. & Sayers, B. M. (1956). Experiments upon the total inhibition of stammering by external control, and some clinical results. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1, 233–246.

Chow, H. M. & Chang, S.-E. (2017). White matter developmental trajectories associated with persistence and recovery of childhood stuttering during childhood. Human Brain Mapping, doi: 10.1002/hbm.23590

Christoffels, I. K., Formisano, E., & Schiller, N. O. (2007). Neural correlates of verbal feedback processing: an fMRI study employing overt speech. Human Brain Mapping, 28, 868–879.

Christoffels, I. K., van de Ven, V., Waldoro, L. J., Formisano, E., & Schiller, N. O. (2011). The Sensory consequences of speaking: Parametric neural cancellation during speech in auditory cortex. PLoS ONE, 6, e18307. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018307

Civier, O., Tasko, S. M., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). Overreliance on auditory feedback may lead to sounds/syllable repetitions: simulations of stuttering and fluency-inducing conditions with a neural model of speech production. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, 246–279.

Civier, O., Bullock, D., Max, L., & Guenther, F. H. (2013). Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation. Brain and Language, 126, 263–278.

Civier, O., Kronfeld-Duenias, V., Amir, O., Ezrati-Vinacour, R., & Ben-Shachar, M. (2015). Reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum is associated with reduced speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering. Brain and Language, 143, 20–31.

Clark, C. E., Conture, E. G., Walden, T. A., & Lambert, W.E. (2015). Speech-language dissociations, distractibility, and childhood stuttering. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 24, 480–503.

Coalson, G. A., Byrd, C. T., & Davis, B. L. (2012). The influence of phonetic complexity on stuttered speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 26 646–659.

Compton, R. J. (2003). The interface between emotion and attention: a review of evidence from psychology and neuroscience. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews,2, 115–138.

Connally, E. L., Ward, D., Howell, P., &Watkins, K. E., (2014). Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering. Brain & Language, 131, 25–35.

Conrad, B. & Schönle, P. (1979). Speech and respiration. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 226, 251–268.

Conture, E. G. (2001). Stuttering: its nature, diagnosis, and treatmant. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Corbera, S., Corral, M.-J., Escera, C., & Idiazábal, M. A.(2005). Abnormal speech sound representation in persistent developmental stuttering. Neurobiology, 65, 1246–1252.

Corley, M., Brocklehurst, P. H., & Moat, H. S. (2011). Error biases in inner and overt speech: evidence from tongue twisters. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 37, 162–175.

Cykowski, M. D., Fox, P. T., Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., & Robin, D. A. (2010). A study of the reproducibility and etiology of diffusion anisotropy differences in developmental stuttering: a potential role for impaired myelination. NeuroImage, 52, 1495–1504.

Daliri, A., Prokoenko, R. A., & Max, L. (2013). Afferent and efferent aspects of mandibular sensorimotor control in adults who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 56, 1774–1788. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0134)

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes' error. Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.

Dayalu, V. M., Saltuklaroglu, T., Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., & Rastatter, M. P. (2001). Producing the vowel /a/ prior to speaking inhibits stuttering in adults in the English language. Neuroscience Letters, 303, 111–115.

De Nil, L. F., Kroll, R. M., Lafaille, S. J., & Houle, S. (2003). A positron emission tomography study of short- and long-term treatment effects on functional brain activation in adults who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28, 357–380.

Dietrich, S., Barry, S. J., & Parker, D. E. (1995). Middle latency auditory responses in males who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 38, 5–17.

Donaher, J. & Richels, C. (2012). Traits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-age children who stutter.. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 242–252.

Donaher, J., Healey, E. C., & Soffer, S. (2013). ADHD and stuttering. The Stuttering Foundation of America. siehe

Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity changes in gray matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311–312.

Drayna, D., Kilshaw. J., & Kelly, J. (1999). The sex ratio in familial persistent stuttering. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65, 1473–1475.

Driemeyer, J., Boyke, J., Gaser, C., Büchel, C., & May, A. (2008). Changes in gray matter induced by learning – revisited. PlosOne, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002669

Duffau, H., Herbet, G., & Moritz-Gasser, S. (2013). Toward a pluri-component, multimodal, and dynamic organization of the ventral semantic stream in humans: lessons from stimulation mapping in awake patients. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 7, doi:  10.3389/fnsys.2013.00044

Eggers, K., De Nil, L. F., & Van den Bergh, B. R. (2012). The efficiency of attentional networks in children who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 55, 946–959.

Eggers, K., De Nil, L. F., & Van den Bergh, B. R. (2013). Inhibitory control in childhood stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 38, 311–313.

Engelkamp, J. & Rummer, R. (1999). The architecture of the mental lexicon. In Friederici, A. D. (Ed.), Language comprehension: A biological perspective (pp. 133–174). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Euler, H. A., Wolff von Gudenberg, A., Jung, & K., Neumann, K. (2009) Computergestützte Therapie bei Redeflussstörungen: Die langfristige Wirksamkeit der Kasseler Stottertherapie (KST). [Computer-assisted therapy for speech disfluency: The long-term effectiveness of the Kassel Stuttering Therapy (KST)]. Sprache Stimme Gehör, 33, 193–201.

Falk, S., Mü:ller, T., & Dalla Balla, S. (2015). Non-verbal sensorimotor timing deficits in children and adolescents who stutter. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 847. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00847

Ferneyhough, E., Kim, M. K., Phelps, E. A., & Carrasco, M. (2013). Anxiety modulates the effects of emotion and attention on early vision. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 166–176.

Fiedler, P. & Standop, R. (1994) Stottern – Äthiologie, Diagnose, Behandlung. (4. Aufl.). Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union.

Fields, R. D. (2005). Myelination: an overlooked mechanism of synaptic plasticity? Neuroscientist 11, 528–531.

Fields, R. D. (2008). Die unterschätzte weiße Hirnmasse. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Oktober, 40–48.

Flavell, H. J., Green, F. L., Flavell, E. R., & Grossman, J. B. (1997) The development of children's knowledge about inner speech. Child Development, 68, 39–47.

Foundas, A. L., Bollich, A. M., Corey, D. M., Hurley, M., & Heilman, K. M. (2001). Anomalous anatomy of speech-language areas in adults with persistent developmental stuttering. Neurology, 57, 207–215.

Foundas, A. L., Bollich, A. M., Feldman, J., Corey, D. M., Huxley, M., Lemen, L. C. & Heilman, K. M. (2004a). Aberrant auditory processing and atypical planum temporale in developmental stuttering. Neurology, 63, 1640–1646.

Foundas, A. L., Corey, D. M., Hurley, M. M., & Heilmann, K. M. (2004b). Verbal dichotic listening in developmental stuttering: Subgroups with atypical auditory processing.Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 17,224–232.

Foundas, A. L., Mock, J. R., Corey, D. M., Golob, E. J., & Conture, E. G. (2013) The SpeechEasy device in stuttering and nonstuttering adults: Fluency effects while speaking and reading. Brain & Language, 126, 141–150.

Fox, P. T., Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Hirsch, T. B., Downs, J. H., Martin, C. et al. (1996). A PET study of the neural systems of stuttering. Nature, 382, 158–162.

Fox, P. T., Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Zamarrina, F., Xiong, J. H., & Lancaster, L. J. (2000). Brain correlates of stuttering and syllable production: a PET performance-correlation analysis. Brain, 123, 1985–2004.

Frey, S., Campbell, J. S. W., Pike, G. B., & Petrides, M. (2008). Dissociating the human language pathways with high angular resolution diffusion fiber tractography. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 11435–11444.

Friederici, A. D. (1999). The neurobiology of language comprehension. In A. D. Friederici (Ed.), Language comprehension: a biological perspective. (2nd ed.; pp. 265–292). Berlin: Springer.

Friederici, A. D. (2012). The cortical language cirquit: from auditory perception to language comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 262–268.

Gessner, J. (2009). List of tong-twisters sampled by the seminary “psycholinguistics in speech production”, Philpps University, Marburg. Retrieved June 2013 from

Grafton, S. T., Schmitt, P,. Van Horn, J., & Diedrichsen, J. (2008). Neural substrates of visuomotor learning based on improved feedback control and prediction. NeuroImage, 39, 1383–1395.

Griggs, S. & Still, A. W. (1979). An analysis of individual differences in words stuttered. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 22, 572–580.

Hall, J. W. & Jerger, J. (1978). Central auditory function in stutterers. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 21, 324–337.

Hampton, A. & Weber-Fox, C. (2009). Non-linguistic auditory processing in stuttering: Evidence from behavior and event-related brain potentials. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 33, 253–273.

Hannah, E. P. & Gardner, J. G. (1968). A note on syntactic relationships in nonfluency. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 11, 853–860.

Hashimoto, Y. & Sakai, K. L. (2003). Brain activations during conscious self-monitoring of speech production with delayed auditory feedback: an fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 20, 22–28.

Hausdörfer, O. (1933). Durch Nacht zum Licht. Des Stotterers bester Freund. Breslau: Korn. (Reprint 1989: Köln: Demosthenes-Verlag)

Healey, E. C. & Reid, R. (2003). ADHD and stuttering: a tutorial. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28, 79–93.

Heina, R. F. (1955). A study of the loci of stuttering in spontaneous speech. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University.

Hickok, G. & Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 393–402.

Hickok, G., Houde, J., & Rong, F. (2011). Sensorimotor Integration in Speech Processing: Computational Basis and Neural Organization. Neuron, 60, 407–422.

Howell, P., & El-Yaniv (1987). The effects of presenting a click in syllable-initial position on the speech of stutterers. Comparison with a metronome click. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 12, 249–256.

Howell, P., Rosen, S., Hannigan, G., & Rustin, L. (2000). Auditory backward-masking performance by children who stutter and its relation to dysfluency rate. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 90, 355–363.

Howell, P. & Williams, S. M. (2004). Development of auditory sensitivity in children who stutter and fluent children. Ear and Hearing, 25, 265–274.

Howell, P. & Davis, S. (2011). Predicting persistence of and recovery from stuttering by the teenage years based on information gathered at age 8 years. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 196–205.

Hugdahl, K., Thomsen, T., Ersland, L., Rimol, L. M., & Niemi, J. (2003). The effects of attention on speech perception: an fMRI study. Brain and Language., 85, 37–48.

Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Finn, P., & Fox, P. T. (2003). Towards a functional neural systems model of developmental stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28, 297–318.

Ingham, R. J., Ingham, J. C., Xiong, J., Zamarrina, F., Hardies, L. J., & Lancaster, J. L. (2004). Brain corellates of stuttering and syllable production: gender comparison and replication. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research., 47, 321–341.

Jacobsen, G. (1992). Die Koordinierte Stotterkontrolle. München: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag.

Jäncke, L. (1992). Die Bedeutung der auditiven Rückmeldung des eigenen Sprechens für die Sprechkontrolle. Sprache – Stimme – Gehör, 16, 17–22.

Jäncke, L., Mirzazade, S., & Shah, N. J. (1999). Attention modulates activity in the primary and the secondary auditory cortex: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 266, 125–128.

Jäncke, L. Hänggi, J., & Steinmetz, H. (2004). Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurology, 4:23, doi:  10.1186/1471-2377-4-23

Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Eggers, K., Aro, K., De Nil, L. F., & Van den Bergh, B. R. (2012). Auditory attention shifting in children who stutter. European Symposium on Fluency Disorders, Retrieved March 2013 from

Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Eggers, K., Järvenpää, A., Van den Bergh, B., De Nil, L., & Kujala, T. (2014). Atypical central auditory speech-sound discrimination in children who stutter as indexed by the mismatch negativity. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 39 , doi: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2014.07.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Jiang, J., Lu, C., Peng, D., Zhu, C., & Howell, P. (2012). Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity. PLoS ONE, 7, e39747.

Johnson, W. & Knott, J. R. (1936). The moment of stuttering. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 48, 475–179.

Juste, F. S., Rondon, S., Sassi, F. C., Ritto, A. P., Colatto, C. A., & Andrade, C. R. (2012). Acoustic analyses of diadochokinesis in fluent and stuttering children. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 67, 409–414.

Kaganovich, N., Hampton Wray, A., & Weber-Fox, C. (2010). Non-linguistic auditory processing and working memory update in pre-school children who stutter: an electrophysiological study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 712–736.

Kalinowski, J., Armstrong, J., Stuart, A., Roland-Mieszkowski, M., & Gracco, V. (1993). Effects of alterations in auditory feedback and speech rate on stuttering frequency. Language and Speech, 36, 1–16.

Kalveram, K. T. (1984). Die Auswirkungen von vorzeitiger und verzögerter auditiver Rückmeldung auf die Sprechflusskennwerte 'on-time' (Phonationsdauer) und 'voice-onset time'. Sprache – Stimme – Gehör, 7, 115– 117.

Kalveram, K. T. & Jäncke, L. (1989). Vowel duration and voice onset time for stressed and nonstressed syllables in stotterers under delayed auditory feedback condition. Folia phoniatrica, 41, 30–42.

Kelham, R. & McHale, A. (1966). The application of learning theory to the treatment of stuttering. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1, 114–118.

Keller, T. A. & Just, M. A. (2009). Altering cortical connectivity: remediation-induced changes in the white matter of poor readers. Neuron, 5, 624–631.

Kelly, C., Uddin, L. Q., Shehzad, Z., Margulies, D. S., Castellanos, F. X., Milham, M. P., & Petrides, M. (2010). Broca's region: linking human brain functional connectivity data and non-human primate tracing anatomy studies. European Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 383–398.

Kikuchi, Y., Ogata, K., Umesaki, T., Yoshiura, T., Kenjo, M., Hirano, Y., et al. (2011). Spatiotemporal signatures of an abnormal auditory system in stuttering. NeuroImage, 55, 891–899.

Kinsbourne, M. (1970). The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries in attention. Acta Psychologica, 33, 193–201.

Knott, J. R. & Johnson, W. (1936). The factor of attention in relation to the moment of stuttering. The Journal of Genetic Psychology., 48, 479–480.

Knott, J.R., Johnson, W., & Webster, M. J. (1937). Studies on the psychology of stuttering; II, A quantitative evaluation of expectation of stuttering in relation to the occurance of stuttering. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 2, 20–22.

Kondas, O. (1967). The treatment of stammering in children by the shadowing method. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 5, 325–329

Koopmans, M., Slis, I., & Rietveld, T. (1991). The influence of word position and word type on the indicence of stuttering. In Peters, H. F. M., Hulstijn. W., Starkweather, C. W. (Eds.), Speech Motor Control and Stuttering (pp. 333–40), Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Kraft, S. J. & Yairi, E. (2012). Genetic bases of stuttering: the state of art 2011. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedia, 64, 34–47.

Kuvazeva, M. G. (2013). Splenium of corpus callosum: patterns of interhemispheric interaction in children and adults. Neural Plasticity, Article ID 639430.

Lackner, J. R. & Tuller, B. H. (1979). Role of efference monitoring in the detection of self-produced speech errors. In W. E. Cooper & E. C. T. Walker (Eds.), Sentence processing: Psycholinguistic studies presented to Merill Garret. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lanyon, R. I. (1969). Speech: Relation of nonfluency and information value. Science, 164, 451–452.

Lashley, K. S. (1951). The problem of serial order in behavior. In L. A. Jeffress (Ed.). Cerebral mechanisms in behavior (pp. 112–146). New York: Wiley.

Lau, E., Phillips, C., & Poeppel, D. (2008). A cortical network for semantics: (de)constructing the N400. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 920–933.

Lee, B. (1951). Artificial Stutter. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 16, 53–55.

Levelt, W. J. M. (1983). Monitoring and self-repair in speech. Cognition, 14, 41–104.

Levelt, W. J. M. (1995). Speaking. From Intention to Articulation (4th ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press, (Chapter 12).

Levelt, W. J. M. (1999). Models of word production. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 223–232.

Liotti, M., Ingham, J. C., Takai, O., Paskos, D. K., Perez, R., & Ingham, R. J. (2010). Spatiotemporal dynamics of speech sound perception in chronic developmental stuttering. Brain and Language, 115, 141–147.

Loucks, T., Chon, H., & Han, W. (2012). Audiovocal integration in adults who stutter. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders., 47, 451–456.

Lynn, W. L. (2010). Dichotic listening among adults who stutter. Master thesis, University of Canterbury. siehe

MacCulloch, M. J. & Eaton, R. (1971). A note on reduced auditory pain threshold in 44 stuttering children. International Journal of Language & Communication Disordorders, 6, 148–153.

MacGregor, L. J., Pulvermüller, F., van Gasteren, M., & Styrov, Y. (2012). Ultra-rapid access to words in the brain. Nature Communications, 3, 711, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1715

MacLaren, J. (1960), The treatment of stammering by the Cherry-Sayers-Method. Clinical impressions. In: Eysenck, H. J.(Ed,), Behaviour therapy and the neuroses, pp. 457–460. Oxford: Pergamon.

MacLeod, J. Kalinowski, J., Stuart, A., & Armson, J. (1995). Effect of single and combined altered auditory feedback on stuttering frequency at two speech rates. Journal of Communication Disorders, 28, 217–228.

Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., McInerney, S., Sorensen, A. G., Wang, R., & Caviness Jr, V. S. (2005). Segmentation of subcomponents within the superior longitudinal fascicle in humans: a quantitative, in vivo, DT-MRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 854–869.

Maraist, J. A. & Hutton, C. (1957). Effects of auditory masking upon the speech of stutterers. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 22, 385–389.

Markevych, V., Asbjørnsen, A. E., Lind, O., Plante, E., & Cone, B. (2011). Dichotic listening and otoacoustic emissions: shared variance between cochlear function and dichotic listening performance in adults with normal hearing. Brain and Cognition, 76 , 332–339.

Markowitsch, H. J. (1999). Gedächtnisstörungen. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

Marland, P. M. (1957). ''Shadowing'' – A contribution to the treatment of stammering. Folia Phoniatrica, 9, 242–245.

Max, L. & Yudman, E. M. (2003). Accuracy and variability of isochronous rhythmic timing across motor systems in stuttering versus nonstuttering individuals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 146–163.

Max, L., Guenther, F. H., Gracco, V. L., Ghosh, S. S., & Wallace, M. E. (2004). Unstable or insufficiently activated internal models and feedback-biased motor control as sources of dysfluency: A theoretical model of stuttering. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 31, 105–122.

McGuire, P. K., Silbersweig, D. A., & Frith, C. D. (1996). Functional neuroanatomy of verbal self-monitoring. Brain, 119, 907–917.

McGuire, P. K., Silbersweig, D. A., Wright, I., Murray, R. M., Frackowiak, R. S., & Frith, C. D. (1996). The neural correlates of inner speech and auditory verbal imagery in schizophrenia: relationship to auditory verbal hallucinations, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 148–159.

Mitchell, R. L. C. & Crow, T. J. (2005). Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: the forgotten hemisphere? Brain, DOI: 963-978

Moray, N. (1959). Attention in dichotic listening: Affective cues and the influence of instructions. Quaterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 56–60.

Motley, M. T., Camdon, C. T., & Baars, B. J. (1982). Covert formulation and editing of anomalies in speech production: Evidence from experimentally elicited slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 578–594.

Muirden, R. (1971). Stammering correction simplified. London: J. Garnet Miller Ltd.

Muirden, R. (2003). Natürlich sprechen lernen. Köln: Demosthenes-Verlag

Näätänen, R., Paavilainen, P., Rinne, T., & Albo, K. (2007). The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: A review. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 2544–2590.

Natke, U. & Alpermann, A. (2010). Stottern. Erkenntnisse, Theorien, Behandlungsmethoden. (3. Aufl.). Bern: Huber.

Natke, U., Alpermann, A., Heil, W., Kuckenberg, S., &: Zückner, H. (2010). Langzeitergebnisse der Intensiv-Modifikation Stottern (IMS). Sprache - Stimme – Gehör, 34, 155–164.

Neef, N. E., Sommer, M., Neef, A., Paulus, W., Gudenberg, A. W. v., Jung, C., & Wüstenberg, T. (2012). Reduced speech perceptual acuity for stop consonants in individuals who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 55, 276–289.

Neumann, K., Euler, H. A., Gudenberg, A. W. v., Giraud, A.-L., Laufermann, H., Gall, V., & Preibisch, C. (2003). The nature and treatment of stuttering as revealed by fMRI. A within- and between-group comparison. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28, 381–410.

Novik, T., Hervas, A., Ralston, S. J., Dalsgaard, S., Pereira, R. R., & Lorenzo, M. J. (2006). Influence of gender on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe – ADORE. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 15–24.

Ogawa, K., Inui, T., & Sugio, T. (2006). Separating brain regions involved in internally guided and visual feedback control of moving effectors: an event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 32, 1760–1770.

Packman, A., Code, C., & Onslow, M. (2007). On the cause of stuttering: Integrating theory with brain and behavioral research. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 353–362.

Pelczarski, K. M. & Yaruss, J. S. (2014). Phonological encoding of young children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 39, 12–24.

Poeppel, D., Yellin, E., Philips, C., Roberts, T. P. L., Rowley, H. A., Wexler, K., & Marantz, A. (1996). Task-induced asymmetry of the auditory evoked M100 neuromagnetic field elicited by speech sounds. Cognitive Brain Research, 4, 231–242.

Poeppel, D, & Monahan, P. J. (2010). Feedforward and feedback in speech perception: Revisiting analysis by synthesis. Language and Cognitive Processes, DOI: 10.1080/01690965.2010.493301

Postma, A. & Kolk, H. (1992). Error monitoring in people who stutter: evidence against auditory feedback defect theories. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 35, 1024–1032.

Postma, A. & Kolk, H. (1993). The covert repair hypothesis: Prearticulatory repair processes in normal and stuttered disfluencies. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 36, 472–487.

Price, J. C., Wise, R. J. S., Warburton, E. A., Moore, C. J., Howard, D., Patterson, K. et al. (1996). Hearing and saying. The functional neuro-anatomy of word processing. Brain, 119, 919–931.

Pulvermüller, F., Shtyrov, Y., Hasting, A. S., & Carlyon, R. P. (2008). Syntax as a reflex: neurophysiological evidence for early automaticity of grammatical processing. Brain and Language, 104, 244–253.

Rämä, P., Relander-Syriaänen, K., Carlson, S., Salonen, O., & Kujala, T. (2012). Attention and semantic processing during speech: an fMRI study. Brain and Language, 122, 114–119.

Ramtekkar, U. P., Reiersen, A. M., Todorov, A. A., & Todd, R. D. (2010). Sex and age differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and diagnoses: Implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 217–228.

Ratcliff-Baird, B. (2001). ADHD and stuttering: Similar EEG profiles suggest neurotherapy as an adjunct to traditional speech therapies. Journal of Neurotherapy. 5, 5–22.

Rauschecker, J. P., & Scott, S. K. (2009). Maps and streams in the auditory cortex: nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 718–724.

Reilly, S., Onslow, M., Packman, A., Wake, M., Bavin, E. L., et al. (2009). Predicting stuttering onset by the age of 3 years: a prospectiv community cohort study. Pediatrics,123, 270–277.

Reilly, S., Onslow, M., Packman, A., Cini, E., Conway, L., Ukoumunne, O. C., Bavin, E. L., Prior, M., Eadie, P., Block, S., & Wake, M. (2013). Natural History of Stuttering to 4 Years of Age: A Prospective Community-Based Study. Pediatrics, 132, 460–467.

Reitzes, P. (2006). Pausing: Reducing the frequency of stuttering. The Journal of Stuttering Therapy, Advocacy & Research, 1, 64–78.

Richels, C., Buhr, A., Conture, E., & Ntourou, K. (2010). Utterance complexity and stuttering on function words in preschool-age children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, 314–331.

Rijntjes, M., Weiller, C., Bomann, T., & Musso, M. (2012). The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, article 9, doi: 10.3389/fnevo.2012.00009

Rosenbaum, D. A., Cohen, R. G., Jax, S. A., Weiss, D. J., & van der Wel, R. (2007). The problem of serial order in behavior: Lashley’s legacy. Human Movement Science, 26, 525–554.

Roth, G. (2007). Persönlichkeit, Entscheidung und Verhalten. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

Rousey, C. L., Goetzinger, C. P., & Dirks, D. (1959). Sound localization ability of normal, stuttering, neurotic, and hemiplegic subjects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1, 640–645.

Sabri, M., Binder, J. R., Desai, R., Medler, D. A., Leitl, M. D., & Liebenthal, E. (2008). Attentional and linguistic interactions in speech perception. NeuroImage, 39, 1444–1456.

Sandow, L. (1898). Mechanik des Stotterns. Nordhausen: Edler.

Sasisekaran, J. & Byrd, C. (2013). Nonword repetition and phoneme elision skills in school-age children who do and do not stutter. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 48, 625–639.

Sato, Y., Mori, K., Koizumi, T., Minagawa-Kawai, Y., Tanaka, A., Ozawa, E., Wakaba, Y., & Mazuka, R. (2011). Functional lateralization of speech processing in adults and children who stutter. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, Article 70, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00070

Scheerer, N. E., Tumber, A. K., & Jones, J. A. (2016). Attentional demands modulate sensorimotor learning induced by persistent exposure to changes in auditory feedback. Journal of Neurophysiology, 115, 826–832.

Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. (2009). Training induces changes in white matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370–1371.

Seidler, R. D., Noll, D. C., & Thiers, G. (2004). Feedforward and feedback processes in motor control. NeuroImage, 22, 1775–1783.

Seidler, R. D., Kwak, Y., Fling, B. W., & Bernard, J. A. (2014). Neurocognitive mechanisms of error-based motor learning. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 782, 10..

Shergill, S. S., Brammer, M. J., Fukuda, R., Bullmore, E., Amaro, E., Murray, R. M. & McGuire, P. K. (2002). Modulation of activity in temporal cortex during generation of inner speech. Human Brain Mapping, 16, 219–227.

Simonyan, K. & Horwitz, B. (2011). Laryngeal motor cortex and control of speech in humans. Neuroscientist, 17, 197–208.

Smith, J. D., Wilson, M., & Reisberg, D. (1995). The role of subvocalization in auditory imagery. Neuropsychology 33, 1433–1454.

Song, L. P., Peng, D. L., Jin, Z., Yao, L., Ning, N,, Guo, X. J., et al. (2007). Gray matter abnormalities in developmental stuttering determined with voxel-based morphometry. National Medical Journal of China, 87, 2884–2888.

Sommer, M., Koch, M. A., Paulus, W., Weiller, C., & Hüchel, C. (2002). Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stuttering. The Lancet, 360, 380–383.

Specht, K. & Reul, J. (2003). Functional segregation of the temporal lobes into highly differentiated subsystems for auditory perception: an auditory rapid event-related fMRI-task. NeuroImage, 20, 1944–1954.

Spencer, C, & Weber-Fox, C. (2014). Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, doi: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2014.06.001

St. Louis, K. O. (1979). Linguistic and motor aspects of stuttering. In N. G. Lass (Ed.), Speech and Language. Advances in Basic Research and Practice, Vol. 1 (pp. 90–210). New York: Academic Press.

Stager, S. V., Jeffries, K. J., & Braun, A. R. (2003). Common features of ?uency-evoking conditions studied in stuttering subjects and controls: an H215O PET study. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28, 319–336.

Stromsta, C. (1959). Experimental blockage of phonation by distorted sideton. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 2, 286–301.

Szaflarski, J. P., Holland, S. K., Schmithorst, V. J., & Byars, A. W. (2006). An fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 202–212.

Takaso, H., Eisner, F., Wise, R. J. S., & Scott, S. K. (2010). The effect of delayed auditory feedback on activity in the temporal lobe while speaking: A Positron Emission Tomography study. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 53, 226–236.

Taylor, K. I. & Regard, M. (2003). Language in the right cerebral hemisphere: Contribution from reading studies. News in Physiological Science, 18, 257–262.

Thorson, A. M. (1925). The relation of tongue movements to internal speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 8, 1–32.

Tornick, G. B. & Bloodstein, O. (1976). Stuttering and sentence length. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 19, 651–654.

Tourville, J. A., Reilly, K. J., & Guenther, F. H. (2008). Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech. NeuroImage, 39, 1429–1443.

Toyomura, A., Fujii, T., & Kuriki, S. (2011). Effect of external auditory pacing on the neural activity of stuttering speakers. Neuroimage, 57, 1507–1516.

Travis, L.E. (1978). The cerebral dominance theory of stuttering: 1931–1978. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 43, 278–281.

Unger, J. (2012). The immediate and long-term effects of altered auditory feedback (AAF) on the characteristics of persistent developmental stuttering. Dissertation, Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg,

Unger, J. P., Glück, C. W., & Cholewa, J. (2012). Immediate effects of AAF devices on the characteristics of stuttering: a clinical analysis. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 122–134.

xan Mier, H. I. & Petersen, S. F. (2002). Role of the cerebellum in motor cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 978, 334–353.

Van Riper, C. G. (1986). Die Behandlung des Stotterns.Solingen: Demosthenes-Verlag.

Van Riper, C. G. (1971) The nature of stuttering. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Van Riper, C. (1982). Sprech-Stunde in der Praxis eines Sprachtherapeuten. München: Ernst Reinhardt.

Vasic, N. & Wijnen, F. (2005). Stuttering as a monitoring deficit. In R. J. Hartsuiker, R. Bastiaanse, A. Postma, & F. Wijnen (Eds.), Phonological encoding and monitoring in normal and pathological speech (pp. 226–247). Hove: Psychology Press.

Vingerhoets, G., Berckmoes, C., & Stroobant, N. (2003). Cerebral hemodynamics during discrimination of prosodic and semantic emotion in speech studied by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Neuropsychology, 17, 93–99.

Wake, H., Lee, P. R., & Fields, R. D. (2011). Control of local protein synthesis and initial events in myelination by action potentials. Science, 333, 1647–1651.

Watkins, R. V., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. G. (1999). Early childhood ctuttering III: initial status of expressive language abilities. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 42, 1125–1135.

Watkins, K. E., Smith, S. M., Davis, S., & Howell, P. (2008). Structural and functional abnormalities of the motor system in developmental stuttering. Brain, 131, 50–59.

Watts, A., Eadie, P., Block, S., Mensah, E., & Reilly, S. (2014). Language ability of children with and without a history of stuttering: A longitudinal cohort study. International Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 11, 1 – 10.

Webster, R. L. & Dorman, M. F. (1970). Decreases in stuttering frequency as a function of continuous and contingent forms of auditory masking. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 13, 82–86.

Webster, R. L. & Lubker, B. B. (1968). Interrelationsships among fluency producing variables in stuttered speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 11, 754–768.

Weber-Fox, C & Hampton, A. (2008). Stuttering and natural speech processing of semantic and syntactic constraints on verbs. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 1058–1071.

Weber-Fox, C., Hampton Wray, A., & Hayley, A. (2913) Early childhood stuttering and electrophysiological indices of lamguage processing. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 38, 206–221.

Wieland, E. A., McAuley, J. D., Dilley, L. C., & Chang, S. E. (2015). Evidence for a rhythm perception deficit in children who stutter. Brain and Language, 144, 26–34.

Wiese, R. (2010). A speech error database. Philipps University, Marburg. Retrieved June 2013 from

Wilson, M. (2001). The case for sensorimotor coding in working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 44–57.

Wimmer, R. D., Schmitt, L. J., Davidson, T. J., Nakajima, M., Deissenroth, K., & Halassa, M. M. (2015). Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention. Nature, 526, 705–709.

Wood, N. & Nelson, C., (1995). The Cocktail Party Phenomenon revisited: How frequent are attention shifts to one's own name in an irrelevant auditory channel? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learnin, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 255–260.

Yairi, E. (2012). Is language a risk factor in stuttering? The Stuttering Foundation of America, Fall Newsletter. Retrieved January 2013 from

Yaruss, J. S. (1999). Utterance length, syntactic complexity, and childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Reserch, 42, 329–344.

Yates, A. J. (1963). Delayed auditory feedback. Psychological Bulletin, 60, 213–32.


 nach oben